The Imperial Army was involved in a number of amphibious operations in the Pacific Island chains although this area was the Navy’s prime responsibility. After the successful overthrow of the Tokugawa Shogunate (bakufu) and establishment of the new Meiji government modeled on European lines, a more formal military, loyal to the central government rather than individual domains, became recognized by the general populac… Subcategories. Graduates of middle and higher schools who had completed courses in military training with the requisite marks were required to serve one year for middle-school graduates or for 10 months for higher-school graduates. This article details the organization of the Imperial Japanese Army. This was derived from Hiko (飛行) meaning ‘air’ or ‘flying’, Sen meaning ‘war’ … 1.1. Three field artillery battalions, each of: Three field artillery companies, each with 4 x 75mm field guns (, Machine gun company, with 6 x heavy machine guns, Up to six companies, with either carts, pack horses, or motor transport, Up to four Field Hospitals, each of 250 personnel (1000), B-1: "fit for active service with minor reservations", B-2: "fit for active service with reservations", Class III-C: "unfit for active service, but fit for national service", Class IV-D: "physically unfit; exempted from all service" (after two successive examinations) or automatically exempted from all service, Class V-E: "fitness undetermined; examination postponed to later date", Japanese Army Tokyo Arsenal: the Army administrative and testing center related with light and heavy weapons production, This page was last edited on 30 May 2020, at 08:45. Cavalry units were formed in regiments most were either operating attached to infantry divisions or directly under a brigade attached to an army prior to the formation of the IJA Cavalry Group on 21 April 1933. Imperial Japanese Army. The Army’s greatest success was probably the capture of Singapore and the expulsion of the British from Malaya and Burma. The first 18 infantry divisions were originally formed as square divisions, and after 1938, most of the remainder were formed as triangular divisions with the security divisions being binary divisions. The Japanese Imperial Army had two types of Mixed Brigades. In peace-time, Class II recruits were not recruited, but were assigned to national service. Those in the "gen-eki" sub-category would serve for two years in the army or three in the navy. Commanded by a Lieutenant-General. On 7 December the IJA had two divisions serving in Japan/Korea and 50 serving abroad, most in China. Commanded by a Major-General. Imperial Japanese Army (1868−1945) — the army for the military of the Empire of Japan. 5 talking about this. Authorized Organization Tank Group 8th December 1941 Tank Units: Tank Groups: Tank Regiment Regiment Raised (Mobilized) Tank Companies : Light Tanks: Medium Tanks 1st Tank Group (3rd Army) 3 Tank Regiment: 1937 (mob 39) A Homen Gun ("Area Army" or "Theatre Army") was equivalent to the field armies of other nations and a Gun ("Army") was equivalent to a corps in other armies. Division (~20,000 men) – Consisted of 3 infantry regiments, 1 cavalry regiment, 1 artillery regiment, 1 engineering battalion and 1 army service corps. Conscripts classified as Class IV-D were reexamined the following year; if they could not be reclassified into any of the first three classes, they were officially exempted from all military service. Later four tank and one parachute division were formed. Using the wartime Imperial Japanese Army (IJA) mobilization plans, and the Unit Organization Tables, Unit Strength Tables and Unit History Tables compiled by the War Ministry and the 1st Demobilization Bureau during and after the war, a complete picture of IJA ground forces through the war is presented. The Imperial Japanese Army (IJA; 大日本帝國陸軍 Dai-Nippon Teikoku Rikugun; 'Army of the Greater Japanese Empire') was the official ground-based armed force of the Empire of Japan from 1868 to 1945. Independent Brigade (~5600 men) – Consisted of 5 battalions, along with other units. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Organization_of_the_Imperial_Japanese_Army Authorized Organization Regular Infantry Division (Square) 8th December 1941 This depicts a typical organization. Kempeitai Auxiliary units consists of regional ethnic forces in occupied areas. This provided a combined arms force of infantry, artillery, cavalry and other support units. Once called up, candidates were given a medical examination and classified as one of the following: Upon receiving their classifications, peace-time Class I-A recruits were enlisted by lottery into either the jobi hei-eki (Regular Army and Imperial Navy) category, consisting of the gen-eki (active service) and the yobi-eki (primary reserve service) sub-categories, or into the kobi hei-eki (secondary reserve service) category. [5][6], Salaries and pensions for Imperial soldiers and sailors were very low by Western standards. The early Imperial Japanese Army was essentially developed with the assistance of French advisors,[3] through the second French military mission to Japan (1872–1880), and the third French military mission to Japan (1884–1889). Students at certain higher secondary schools were classified as Class V-E until they had finished their studies or upon reaching the age of 27, whichever came first. All about Japanese army in WWII.Admin: Muhammad Aris Munandar Commanded by a Captain. According to United States Army's TM-E 30-480 Handbook On Japanese Military Forces, there were over 36,000 regular members of the Kempeitai at the end of the war; this did not include the many ethnic "auxiliaries". Imperial Japanese Army. Before then, only a proportion of the secondary reserve service had been called to active duty, during the Russo-Japanese War. Normal-school graduates with the requisite marks had their active service reduced to five months. In wartime, Class II B-1 and Class II B-2 recruits were enrolled into the hoju hei-eki category, with II B-1 recruits enlisted into the first supplementary territorial army and naval volunteer reserve and II B-2 recruits enlisted into the second supplementary territorial army and naval volunteer reserve, respectively. As can also be seen from the diagram above, actual organizations and equipment could vary from division by division. The Imperial Japanese Military (IJM) is a recurring antagonistic organization from the 1940 series, based on the real navy which existed up until the end of World … This video describes Japanese morale and step reduction in advanced squad leader The Imperial Japanese Army managed various Arsenals: Often referred to as the "Infantry Group" in histories of World War II to avoid confusion with a Commonwealth infantry brigade, which was equivalent to a Japanese infantry regiment, pg 106–107, "Conscription, Chapter IX: National Defence," The Japan-Manchukuo Year Book 1938, Japan-Manchukuo Year Book Co., Tokyo, pg 214–216, "The Military Service System," Japan Year Book 1938–1939, Kenkyusha Press, Foreign Association of Japan, Tokyo, pp 332–333, "Exchange and Interest Rates," Japan Year Book 1938–1939, Kenkyusha Press, Foreign Association of Japan, Tokyo, pg 1179, "Japan – Money, Weights and Measures," The Statesman's Year-Book 1950, Steinberg, S.H., Macmillan, New York, pg 62–63, "Chapter VI: Administrative System," The Japan-Manchukuo Year Book 1938, Japan-Manchukuo Year Book Co., Tokyo, List of air divisions of the Imperial Japanese Army, Epidemic Prevention and Water Purification Department, List of IJA Independent Infantry Brigades, List of Japanese military detachments in World War II, Establishment of a standard infantry division, Scale of equipment of a standard infantry division, "Officially known by the Imperial Japanese Army as the "Political Department and Epidemic Prevention Research Laboratory", it was initially set up as a political and ideological section of the Kempeitai military police of pre-Pacific War Japan; from google (political and ideological section of the Kempeitai military police) result 5", On-line version of U.S. War Department discussion of Japanese organisation, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Organization_of_the_Imperial_Japanese_Army&oldid=959726133, Military units and formations of the Imperial Japanese Army, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, Imperial Army (~230,000–250,000 men) – Commanded by Marshal HIH Prince Kan-in-Kotohito, General Army (総軍 Sō-gun equivalent to the Army Group or Front) – Commanded by a Marshal or General, Area Army (方面軍 Hōmen-gun 1942–1945 equivalent to the Field Army) – Commanded by a General or Lieutenant-General, Army (equivalent to the Corps)- Commanded by a Lieutenant-General. The IJA led the nation into war with Manchuria, then China, and then the Allies. Conversely, the Type "C" division would lack artillery and other supporting arms. in 1937, Imperial General Headquarters was established as the central directing and coordinating … Of a similar but slightly lower status was a Haken Gun, or "Expeditionary Army". There were three cavalry brigades: the IJA 1st Cavalry Brigade, IJA 3rd Cavalry Brigade, and IJA 4th Cavalry Brigade. The Japanese Army was a mirror of Japanese society before 1945. This article details the organization of the Imperial Japanese Army. The goal of the Imperial Army was surface superiority during instances of ground warfare, and were equipped with the means of seizing and defending a planet. The purpose of this handbook, which constitutes a revision of TM 30-480, 21 September 1942, is to … The IJA maintained two types of Independent Regiments, both were used to provide garrisons in occupied areas. In practice, total conscription of the available population was only instituted during the Second World War. A Reconnaissance regiment, with a mix of mounted, motorized infantry and anti-tank companies, could replace the Cavalry regiment. II B-1 recruits would serve for two years and four months in the territorial army or one year in the naval volunteer reserve; II B-2 recruits would serve for 12 years and four months in the territorial army or 11 years and four months in the naval volunteer reserve. Three field artillery battalions, each of: Three field artillery companies, each with 4 x 75mm field guns (, Machine gun company, with 6 x heavy machine guns, Up to six companies, with either carts, pack horses, or motor transport, Four Field Hospitals, each of 250 personnel (1000), Kempeitai Auxiliary units consisting of regional ethnic forces in occupied areas. As the IJA was an infantry force the most common type of division was the infantry division. Unit 731 were covert medical experiment units which conducted biological warfare research and development through human experimentation during the Second Sino-Japanese War (1937–1945) and World War II. Regiment (~3,800 men) – Consisted of 3 battalions, each of 1,100 men, along with other units. Initially set up as a political and ideological section of the Kempeitai military police of pre-Pacific War Japan, they were meant to counter the ideological or political influence of Japan's enemies, and to reinforce the ideology of military units.[4]. Some of the men that were in combat during this time "Organization of the Imperial Japanese Army." Second lieutenants were paid ¥850 yearly ($195.50), lieutenants ¥1020–1130 ($234.60–259.90) and captains ¥1470–1900 ($338.10-437). During the war another 117 were raised for foreign service and 56 were raised for national defense. This category has the following 6 subcategories, out of 6 total. Since the 1990s, Japan's military forces have been involved in various operations both abroad and local; examples include Operation 6/9 and the evacuation of Gwanju for the former, and the 1998 Invasion of Japan, Operation Lucifer and the following recapture of Honshu, and the Invasion of Niigatafor the latter. According to. Taiwanese and Koreans were used extensively as auxiliaries to police the newly occupied territories in Southeast Asia, although the Kempeitai recruited French Indochinese (especially, from among the Cao Dai religious sect), Malaysians and others. 1. The entire wiki with photo and video galleries for each article The Imperial Japanese Army (IJA) (Dai-Nippon Teikoku Rikugun) was the official ground based armed force of Imperial Japan from 1867 to 1945. The first 18 infantry divisions were originally formed as square divisions, and after 1938, most of the remainder were formed as triangular divisions with the security divisions being binary divisions. 1.3K likes. The Imperial Japanese Army (IJA; error: {{nihongo}}: Japanese or romaji text required (help) Dai-Nippon Teikoku Rikugun; "Army of the Greater Japanese Empire") was the official ground-based armed force of the Empire of Japan from 1868 to 1945. As the IJA was an infantry force the most common type of division was the infantry division. If you are interested in reenacting the Japanese Army's military. Troops supplemented the Kempeitai and were considered part of the organization but were forbidden by law to rise above the rank of Shocho (Sergeant Major). Cavalry units were formed in regiments most were either operating attached to infantry divisions or directly under a brigade attached to an army prior to the formation of the IJA Cavalry Group on 21 April 1933. A So-Gun, meaning "General Army", was the term used in the IJA for an army group. The Kempeitai may have trained Trinh Minh The, a Vietnamese nationalist and military leader. The Standard, or Type "B" division was organised as: It was common for a Mountain Artillery regiment, with a total of 3400 men and 36 x Type 94 75 mm Mountain Guns, to be substituted for the Field Artillery regiment, especially for operations in rough terrain. Japanese society consisted of many autonomous, competing groups. Upon reaching the age of 40 in peace-time, all soldiers in Classes I and II would be placed on the national service list and released from regular duties. Similar to German Kampfgruppen, these detachments were usually a force of infantry, artillery, armor, and other support units which were temporarily assigned for independent action and had a special mission. The Japanese Imperial Army had two types of Mixed Brigades. From December 1927, conscripts who had completed a course of study with the requisite marks at a government-run Young Men's Training Institute ("Seinen Kunrenshou"), the curriculum of which included 200 hours of military training, could have their period of active service reduced to 18 months. Of this total no more than 35, that is one fifth of the IJA infantry division total, fought in the Pacific theatre. Led by a Corporal. Of a similar but slightly lower status was a Haken Gun, or "Expeditionary Army". Platoon (~50 men) – Consisted of 3 sections, each of 15 men. I Section (~12–15 men) – Consisted of 3 teams, each of about 4 men. Postcard with view of Imperial Japanese Army General Staff Office HQ, circa 1910 The Imperial Japanese Army General Staff Office ( 参謀本部 , Sanbō Honbu ) The father of the Imperial Japanese Army (IJA), Yamagata Aritomo, equipped it with several advantages in this competition, allowing it to eventually seize control of the state. The IJA maintained two types of Independent Regiments, both were used to provide garrisons in occupied areas. Class III-C recruits were automatically assigned to national service if necessary. Unit 731 responsible for some of the most notorious war crimes. [8], Officer cadets were paid a yearly salary of ¥670 ($154.10 in 1941 dollars). At the outbreak of the Second World War, the basic structure of the Imperial Japanese Army was as follows: In the Imperial Japanese Army (IJA), the term Gun, literally meaning "army", was used in a different way to the military forces of other countries. The Reinforced or Type "A" division generally substituted medium artillery companies with 4 x Type 91 10 cm Howitzer or long-range Type 92 10 cm Cannon for one or more field artillery companies in the field artillery regiment. The Japanese Army Air Service is an … Troops supplemented the Kempei Tai and were considered part of the organization but were forbidden by law to rise above the rank of Shocho (Sergeant Major). Battalion (~1,100 men) – Consisted of 4 companies, each of 180 men, along with other units. During the course of its existence the IJA organized three Guards Divisions and over 220 infantry divisions of various types (A/Reinforced, B/Standard, C/Counter-insurgency). How-To Tutorials; Suggestions; Machine Translation Editions; Noahs Archive Project; About Us. Sole supporters of families and criminals sentenced to over six years penal servitude were automatically listed as Class IV-D and exempted from all service. Japanese students studying abroad were also classed as Class V-E until reaching the age of 37. In the Imperial Japanese Army (IJA), the term Gun, literally meaning "army", was used in a different way to the military forces of other countries. After this period, they would be placed on the primary reserve service list (yobi-eki) for five years and four months in the army or four years in the navy, and would be subsequently placed on the secondary reserve service list after 10 years in the army (five in the navy) before being placed on the national service list (kokumin hei-eki) after 17 years and four months of army service (or 12 years of naval service). Home; Books; Search; Support. [7] No true exchange rate existed for the yen during the war years, and wartime inflation reduced the yen to a fraction of its pre-war value. Detachments were particular military formations of the Imperial Japanese Army. Imperial Japanese Army in WWII, Pusakanagara, Jawa Barat, Indonesia. The Imperial Japanese Army General Staff Office (参謀本部, Sanbō Honbu), also called the … A Homen Gun ("Area Army" or "Theatre Army") was equivalent to the field armies of other nations and a Gun ("Army") was equivalent to a corps in other armies. However, due to the German victory in the Franco-Prussian War, the Japanese g… Machine gun company, with 12 x heavy machine guns, Regimental anti-tank gun company, with 6 x. While the Imperial Navy controlled space and the Stormtrooper Corps led assaults and established bridgeheads, only the Imperial Army was capable of deploying the heavy equipment and sustaining the long operations required to gain control of planets. It contained a peculiar amalgam of medieval attitudes and modern material, for the Army still followed the code of Bushido which upheld the virtues of man-to-man combat in a machine age, and demanded that the Japanese soldier die rather than surrender. Organization of the Imperial Japanese Army | Open Access Articles | Open Access Journals | Conference The least rigorous path was for those enlisted into the hoju hei-eki (replenishment territorial army and naval volunteer reserve), who would end their service on the national service list. Without an independent air force and with a limited budget for military aviation, a great rivalry grew between army and naval aviators in Japan. A similar but less stringent path was set out for those enlisted into the primary or secondary reserve categories; they would also end their service on the national service list. The basic unit was the Hiko Sentai, normally shortened to Sentai (戦隊). Some sources report that the Kempeitai recruited criminals as law enforcers. Commanded by a Colonel. Major-generals were paid ¥5000 yearly ($1150), lieutenant-generals ¥5800 ($1334) and full generals ¥6600 ($1518).[9]. Conversely, the Type "C" division would lack artillery and other supporting arms. In the late 1930s a period of restructuring saw large changes in the organization of the Imperial Japanese Army Air Force. Company (~180 men) – Consisted of 3 platoons, each of 54 men, and a headquarters unit with 19 men. As such, the Army enc… It might also have an attached medium artillery battalion with three companies each of 4 x Type 96 15 cm Howitzer or long-range Type 89 15 cm Cannon, and an attached tank regiment (battalion). The Imperial Japanese Army (IJA) (Kyūjitai: 大日本帝國陸軍, Shinjitai: 大日本帝国陸軍, Romaji: Dai-Nippon Teikoku Rikugun), or literally "army of the greater Japanese empire" was the official ground based armed force of Imperial Japan from 1871 to 1945. Commanded by a Lieutenant-Colonel. Commanded by a Lieutenant. Japanese Lieutenant, 1937, with the old-style service dress. Because of their combat experience, the Empire of Japan's military is re… On the eve of the Second World War, the yen had a value of $0.23. Majors were paid ¥2330 yearly ($535.90), lieutenant-colonels ¥3220 ($740.60) and colonels ¥4150 ($954.60). The chief sources used in compilation of this document included: Greater East Asia Imperial Japanese Navy Wartime Organization, original and revisions, issued by the Chief of the Navy General Staff, 1 June 1945; Battle Lessons, compiled by the Yokosuka Air Group; wartime diaries, battle reports, and Summaries of Merit of various units and ships, as submitted to the Navy Ministry and Navy General … The Reinforced or Type "A" division generally substituted medium artillery companies with 4 x Type 91 10 cm Howitzer or long-range Type 92 10 cm Cannon for one or more field artillery companies in the field artillery regiment. The Independent Mixed Brigade was a detachment composed of various units detached from other units or independent support units formed … On 7 December the IJA had two divisions serving in Japan/Korea and 50 serving abroad, most in China. A Reconnaissance regiment, with a mix of mounted, motorized infantry and anti-tank companies, could replace the Cavalry regiment. The Standard, or Type "B" division was organised as: It was common for a Mountain Artillery regiment, with a total of 3400 men and 36 x Type 94 75 mm Mountain Guns, to be substituted for the Field Artillery regiment, especially for operations in rough terrain. Later four tank and one parachute division were formed. During the Meiji Restoration, the military forces loyal to the Emperor were samurai drawn primarily from the loyalist feudal domains of Satsuma and Chōshū. It might also have an attached medium artillery battalion with three companies each of 4 x Type 96 15 cm Howitzer or long-range Type 89 15 cm Cannon, and an attached tank regiment (battalion). Similar to German Kampfgruppen, these detachments were usually a force of infantry, artillery, armor, and other support units which were temporarily assigned for independent action and had a special mission. They were usually named after their commanders or the area in which they were to operate, and could be any size below division. These totaled 223 including the Imperial Guard. They were usually named after their commanders or the area in which they were to operate, and could be any size below division. These totaled 223 including the Imperial Guard. Detachments were particular military formations of the Imperial Japanese Army. Of this total no more than 35, that is one fifth of the IJA infantry division total, fought in the Pacific theatre. List of IJA Mixed Brigades 2. Founded in 1871, the army was under the nominal command of the Emperor. A So-Gun, meaning "General Army", was the term used in the IJA for an army group. Imperial Japanese Army. The divisional Mixed Brigade was the semi-permanent detachment of a brigade from an Infantry Division with various Divisional support units or units attached from its Corps or Army. Often referred to as the "Infantry Group" in histories of World War II to avoid confusion with a Commonwealth infantry brigade, which was equivalent to a Japanese infantry regiment, Articles incorporating text from Wikipedia, List of IJA Independent Infantry Brigades, List of Japanese military detachments in World War II, Establishment of a standard infantry division, Scale of equipment of a standard infantry division, On-line version of U.S. War Department discussion of Japanese organisation, https://military.wikia.org/wiki/Organization_of_the_Imperial_Japanese_Army?oldid=4214832, Machine gun company, with 12 x heavy machine guns, Regimental anti-tank gun company, with 6 x. During the war another 117 were raised for foreign service and 56 were raised for national defense. During the course of its existence the IJA organized three Guards Divisions and over 220 infantry divisions of various types (A/Reinforced, B/Standard, C/Counter-insurgency). Organization of the Imperial Japanese Army Japanese armies. Conscription of all able-bodied males aged 17 (in practice from the age of 20) to 40 was instituted in 1873 and revised in 1927. Japan does not have an independent Air Service. The Japanese Imperial Army had two types of Mixed Brigades. There were three cavalry brigades: the IJA 1st Cavalry Brigade, IJA 3rd Cavalry Brigade, and IJA 4th Cavalry Brigade. As many foreign territories fell under the Japanese military occupation during the 1930s and the early 1940s, the Kempeitai recruited a large number of locals in those territories. Using the wartime Imperial Japanese Army (IJA) mobilization plans, and the Unit Organization Tables, Unit Strength Tables and Unit History Tables compiled by the War Ministry and the 1st Demobilization Bureau during and after the war, a complete picture of IJA ground forces through the war is presented. 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With a mix of mounted, motorized infantry and anti-tank companies, each of 54 men, and then Allies! Penal servitude were automatically assigned to national service 1941 dollars ) the World!

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